In December 2000, toy manufacturer Mattel sued MCA Records, Aqua’s record label. Mattel claimed that “Barbie Girl” violated their trademark and turned her into a sex object, referring to her as a “Blonde Bimbo”. They alleged the song had violated their copyrights and trademarks of Barbie, and that its lyrics had tarnished the reputation of their trademark and impinged on their marketing plan. Aqua claimed that Mattel injected their own meanings into the song’s lyrics and MCA Records was not about to let their hit single be suppressed without a fight. They contested Mattel’s claims and countersued for defamation after Mattel had likened MCA to a bank robber. The lawsuit filed by Mattel was dismissed by the lower courts, and this dismissal was upheld, though Mattel took their case up to the Supreme Court of the United States, but that appeal was later rejected. In 2002, a Court of Appeals ruled the song was protected as a parody under the trademark doctrine of nominative use and the First Amendment to the United States Constitution; the judge Alex Kozinski also threw out the defamation lawsuit that Aqua’s record company filed against Mattel, concluding his ruling: “The parties are advised to chill. ” The case was dismissed.